Saturday, March 14, 2020
Explanations of Schizophrenia Essays Explanations of Schizophrenia Essay Explanations of Schizophrenia Essay Describe two explanations of schizophrenia and evaluate these explanations (9 and 16 marks) Two explanations of schizophrenia are the biological perspective and the psychological perspective. The biological perspective involves genetic factors that influence schizophrenia, however the psychological perspective involves environmental factors in which you learn the behaviour of a schizophrenic. The first explanation is the biological perspective, it has two subtypes, these are biochemical and genetic. The biochemical type talks about enlarged ventricles in the brain, these are cavities that supply nutrients and remove waste. The reason for enlarged ventricles could be due to an issue with diet. It also talks about the dopamine hypothesis, this is excess neurotransmitters. Dopamine occurs in the limbic system, this plays a major role in regulating emotional and sexual behaviour, attention and thoughts. Amphetamine and cocaine both largely increase levels of dopamine and can cause psychosis, this can sometimes explain attention and thought problems in schizophrenia as the dopamine neurons play a large role in guiding a personÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Anti-psychotic drugs like chlorpromazine are thought to work by binding to dopamine receptor sites. The genetic type goes on to talk about how schizophrenia is found more in biological relatives depending on how close the family link is. Monozygotic twins have a 44. 37% of being born with schizophrenia. The PPP3CC chemical is an enzyme which regulates the immune system; it appears to be defective in many patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The second explanation is the psychological perspective; there are many different explanations for schizophrenia that take a psychological view. These contain psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioural and other socio-cultural factors like the role of family and society. Cognitive explanations acknowledge the role that schizophrenia is characterised by thought disturbance. This could be down to cognitive deficits which can weaken areas such as perception and memory. Schizophrenics usually first discover symptoms of voices and abnormal sensory experiences, this then usually makes them turn to friends and family to confirm the experiences. Then other symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions are formed after the failure to not accept the reality, these of which are cognitive. The behavioural explanation suggests that schizophrenia is a consequence of faulty learning. Children who do not receive small amounts or little reinforcement early in their lives will put larger attention into irrelevant environmental cues. This behaviour will eventually appear Ã¢â¬ËweirdÃ¢â¬â¢ or strange to others and so will generally be avoided. These strange behaviours may be rewarded by attention and sympathy and so they are reinforced. This can continue until the behaviour becomes so strange that they are then labelled as schizophrenic. The psychodynamic explanation was developed by Stephen Freud. In terms of schizophrenia he suggests that the health condition is a result of regression to a pre-ego state and attempts to re-establish ego control. If the life experiences of a schizophrenic are harsh then the person may go back to a stage of development before the ego and awareness of the world is properly formed. Symptoms such as delusions can reflect this basic condition and other symptoms such as hallucinations and voices reflect the attempts of the person trying to re-establish its ego control. Socio-cultural explanations stress the role of social and family relationships. This can include social labelling, family relationships and life events. The family relationship theory suggests that children who frequently receive contradictory messages from their parents are more likely to develop schizophrenia. This will lead the child to receiving confused and conflicting messages about their relationship, conflict between verbal and non-verbal. Chronically this can develop into schizophrenic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations. One strength of the biological explanation is that it has high reliability. The reason for this is because the research is carried out in highly controlled environments. This suggests that if this research was tested and re-tested the same results would be achieved. Another strength is that it has practical applications. However, a weakness of the biological explanation is that it lacks population validity. The reason for this is because the samples that are used are too small in numbers and only a select number are actually used. This suggests that there are issues with the findings being generalised to the whole population. Another weakness is that it is reductionist and too over simplistic. Also, is the raised dopamine levels the cause of the schizophrenia, or is it the raised dopamine levels which are the result of schizophrenia? It is not clear which comes first. This suggests that one needs to be careful when establishing cause and effect relationships in schizophrenic patients. One trength of the psychological explanation is that it has practical applications. Another strength is that it takes on board the nurture approach to the development of schizophrenia. For example, it suggests that schizophrenic behaviour is caused by environmental factors such as cognitive factors. However, a weakness of the psychological explanation is that you cannot determine cause and effect. Another weakness is that there are ethical issues in blaming the family, particularly as there is little evidence in which to base thi s. Gender bias is also an issue as the mother tends to be blamed the most. This suggests that the research therefore does not protect individuals from harm. Another weakness is that it can said to be reductionist. The reason for this is because the approach does not consider other factors such as genes. It could be that the problems are caused by low neurotransmitters and that creates the cognitive deficits. This suggests that the cognitive approach is over simplistic when considering the explanation of schizophrenia.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Reading Response and Thinking about Research Questions - Essay Example Nevertheless, the publishing industry has been reshaped over a century through the creation of websites such as Amazon. The book talks about the shift from analogue to digital where now publishers digitally send contents to distributors and retailers who then reaches the potential consumers. Consumers download the digital contents into their personal computers, tablets, smartphones, iPhones and other reading devices. The book clearly shows the disadvantages of traditional mode of publishing and marketing of books. The book contains several essays that help the reader to get a concrete conclusion on the effects of digital changes in publishing and music industries. The essays explain the effects on workflow, designing, and metadata. The tools of the digital workflow and designing of books in the digital age are clearly stated in the book. The essay clearly shows the work made by every player in books publishing industry. That is, the worker of publishers, websites, retailers as well as consumers. The book analysis the use of books as a result of the shift other than digital copies of paper objects. (McGuire and OLeary) 2. For each of the two specific essays you read from the book, please do the following. Give the title/author of the essay. Summarize the reading (use about 3 sentences for each summary), and describe its significance in regard to our course theme. Why are these specific essays of interest to you? Ã¢â¬Å"The Forgotten ConsumerÃ¢â¬ by Jacob Lewis is one of the interesting essay that clearly explain the inefficient market. Digital changes have improved the book industry whereby publishers use the internet to find potential customers for their products. The essay also shows how digital changes have led to growth of talents of many writers and readers. Huge amounts of books, articles, and eBooks are produced every day and this clearly shows development in the publishing industry. The other essay is Ã¢â¬Å"What We Can Do with
Monday, February 10, 2020
Organization Architecture - Essay Example Part of this is by making sure that Google feels like a small-business, no matter how large and successful the organization may be (Ã¢â¬Å"Jobs,Ã¢â¬ 2011). Google makes its employees number one by being open to anything that they may have to say. As employees can be a large part of any companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success, it is important to take their views onboard tailor the workplace to suit their needs. Unlike other organizations, Google is a forward-thinking organization in that diversity is at the forefront of its employee recruitment policies. Google doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just accept differenceÃ¢â¬âthey celebrate, support, and thrive on it so that their employees, products, and community can feel the feel effects of it (Ã¢â¬Å"Jobs,Ã¢â¬ 2011). Diversity in the workplace is becoming increasingly important in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern business environment. Because Google is a well-recognized international organization that has business operations in a wide variety of companies, Google has to take a stand and be at the forefront of diversity in the workplace. Google is not just an equal opportunity workplace, but is rather an affirmative action employer (Ã¢â¬Å"JobsÃ¢â¬ 2011). Google is one of the most open and transparent companies out there. Because of this, there is very little control in everyday business operations. Douglas Merrill, senior director of information technology at Google, commented: Ã¢â¬Å"We release a lot of products in beta because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the way we understand to interact with our clientsÃ¢â¬ (Farber, 2005). This means that many Google products, when released, do not function as they should. One benefit of this is that Google users themselves can inform the company of any defects in any of their products. This way, Google does not have to employ anyone to check products before they are released to the market. One control that Google does use is their Project Database. This is not really a project tracking system, but rather a reporting sy stem that allows Google employees to check what work they themselves and other employees are currently doing (Farber, 2005). This system is run via an email posting that displays a list of bullet points (Farber, 2005). The good thing about this system is that other workers can check an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s output and detect any flaws that may be involved. However, this system is not fully perfect because much of the data that the system displays can be completely meaningless. According to the chief culture officer, GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture focuses upon innovation and teamwork to produce the quality products. Stacy Savides Sullivan is one of the very few people who work at an organization with her position (Mills, 2007). Her main role is to make sure that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s distinctive culture is maintained while every employee feels satisfied. GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is based upon being a flat organization, very little hierarchy, and a collaborative environment (Mills, 2007). Google p romotes individuality among its employees and expects them to think quickly on their feet. Back in 2006, Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin decided that GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture was slipping away from its traditional values. This was when they came up with the idea of a chief culture officer to manage all of the conflicts that occur in the workplace. Culture is a very important part of the success of Google, so it is vital that this
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Kite Runner Essay An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of belonging stems from their notions of identity, personal context, and place. A lack in any of these areas may result in a thorough sense of alienation and pose as a barrier, which prevents belonging and facilitates an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to exclude themselves from their surroundings. However, ironically, these barriers that present hardship can truly liberate an individual and help them in finding a more fulfilled state of belonging. These ideas are explored in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, As You Like It and Khaled HosseiniÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Kite Runner. Barriers to belonging are evident in the play in Ã¢â¬ËAs you like itÃ¢â¬â¢ and are explored through gender paradigms, and social structures. Particularly through the relationship between Rosalind and Duke Frederick. Due to the usurpation of her father by the disloyal Duke Frederick, Rosalind is unfairly subjected to the harsh treatment by her Uncle. He creates suspicion and isolates Rosalind through his diction in, Ã¢â¬Å"Mistress, dispatch you with your safest haste and get you from our court. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Me, uncle? Ã¢â¬ Here the employment of second person reveals the distancing of Rosalind from the hierarchy. His use of the imperative emphasises the barrier that will be created. Frederick is presented as a Machiavellian character whose threat, Ã¢â¬Å"or thou deistÃ¢â¬ emphasises the danger inherent in her vulnerable state. Her vulnerability due to her gender is also evident, when he alludes to the Christian practice of purgation Ã¢â¬Å"If purgation did consist in wordsÃ¢â¬ which is associated with a spiritual cleansing, of the body which suggests that Rosalind is impure He also confirms the notion of the impure female by his use of sibilance (to Celia) in Ã¢â¬Å"She is too subtle for thee and her smoothness,Her very silenceÃ¢â¬ He uses juxtaposition between Celia and Rosalind to reinforce CeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"purityÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thou wilt show more bright and virtuous. Therefore, the issue of sexuality and female deviousness is alluded to. Furthermore, RÃ¢â¬â¢s separation by gender is evident in, TouchstoneÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue as he says to Rosalind, Ã¢â¬Å"Thus men grow wiser everyday. It is the first time I heard breaking of ribs was sport for ladies. Ã¢â¬ Touchstone does not think wrestling is a sport for ladies to enjoy. In dressing as Ganymede, she acquires a certain freedom to move around, give advice, and associate as an equal among other men. Breaking free of an external factor and gaining a sense of attachment. Thus her projection of control affects her sense of belonging by challenging the traditional sense of gender roles. Comparatively, Ã¢â¬ËThe kite runnerÃ¢â¬â¢, explores the disparity created by differences in cultural backgrounds. This connection manifests in the relationship between Amir and Hassan, though Amir is true to Hassan in private, he feels the need to relate to Hassan according to the prevailing social hierarchy in public. Ã¢â¬Å"Afghanistan is the land of the PashtunÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦not the flat-nosed HazaraÃ¢â¬â¢s, these people pollute our homeland. They dirty our blood. The inclusive language at the beginning of the quote is aimed at the PashtunÃ¢â¬â¢s whereas the negative connotations of Ã¢â¬ËpolluteÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdirtyÃ¢â¬â¢ emphasise the subservient position of the HazaraÃ¢â¬â¢s in the Afghani society and thus losing their sense of placement within society. Amir has to face that fact he is disloyal to his relationship with Hassan and begins personal growth. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s my servant! Had I really though that? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Everywhere I turned I saw signs of his loyalty, his goddamn unwavering loyalty. Ã¢â¬ the absence of conjunction emphasises his thorough regrets that act as a barrier preventing him from belonging. Furthermore, Assef tells Amir Afghanistan is like a beautiful mansion littered with garbageÃ¢â¬ This denigrating simile compares Afghanistan to a beautiful mansion, i. e. something that is sacred whilst the Hazara are being compared to garbage, belittling these people. This quote also juxtaposes the concepts of a mansion and garbage where a mansion represents wealth, influence, authority and respect whereas garbage signifies something that defiles an otherwise pristine environment. The discrimination against the HazaraÃ¢â¬â¢s detaches them from their homeland of Afghanistan and thus limits their ability to belong. Through familial relationships, characters from both texts have furthered their understanding and ability to belong. From AYLI, Orlando is marginalised and alienated as his jealous older brother Oliver has cut him out of their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s will and had not educated him as their father wished. The simile, said by Orlando, Ã¢â¬Å"You have trained me like a peasantÃ¢â¬ likens him to poverty. Orlando is clearly irritated by his mistreatment and as a result catalyses his ability to belong. Ã¢â¬Å"I will no longer endure it,Ã¢â¬ he says with high modality and escapes into the forest of Arden where he found a sense of acceptance. Through his new connection Orlando develops a more enduring connection through Rosalind, who like impresario, provoking characters like Orlando to re-evaluate the quality of relationships. Rosalind uses eloquence rather than verbosity. This is evident in, Ã¢â¬Å"To Shakespeare love between men and women is grounded in mutual, not just masculine, behaviourÃ¢â¬ ¦what has happened between people helps make possible what will happen. Ã¢â¬ Striving to feel a bond of security, Amir was desperate to win his fathers approval. If I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t seen the doctor pull him out of my wife with my own eyes, IÃ¢â¬â¢d never believe heÃ¢â¬â¢s my son. The short sentences in the quote, are to the point and Baba had not thought twice about the distant relationships between the two nor has he made the effort to improve that. Amir, on the other hand, went to the extent to betray his best friend in hopes of gaining the love of his father to fill the void within him that prevented him from any sense of security. Hassan was the price I had to pay, the lamb I had to slay to win Baba The diction here alludes to the religious ceremony of sacrificing a lamb to a greater power, and similarly, Amir sacrifices Hassan to achieve something greater. Amir and Babas relationship was artificial but through the strain they experienced, Amir was pushed to realise his place in where he truly belonged. There is also an atmosphere of political change and unrest in 1970 Afghanistan Ã¢â¬Å"something roared like thunder. The earth shook a little. Ã¢â¬ This pathetic fallacy, associated with explosions and gunfire associated with the entering of Russian tanks and Ã¢â¬Å" the death of the Afghanistan I knew. Ã¢â¬ show that the relationship between boys is a stable force similar to Celia and Rosalind in AYLI. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to conform is dependent on the place in which they are surrounded by. In AYLI, the juxtaposed locations of the forest and the court constantly remind the audience of the differences between them. The ironic use of Ã¢â¬Å"you cousinÃ¢â¬ by Duke Frederick clarifies how the court is governed by deceitful intrigue and flawed relationships whereas the biblical allusion to Eden said by Duke Senior Ã¢â¬Å"feel not the penalty of AdamÃ¢â¬ as they Ã¢â¬Å"fleet the time as carelessly as they did in the golden worldÃ¢â¬ signifies the ideal world that man longs to be. The two parallel locations impact the characters when, from the oppression of the city, characters escape to the simple life of nature. Arden acts as a catalyst for their renewal, assisting their ability to arrive at a fuller sense of belonging for when they returned to court and thus is affected by external factor of place. In comparison, the Kite Runner shows the struggle of immigration. Amir along with Baba had to deal with fitting into an entirely different culture. Baba, who expressed a great deal of pride and attachment to his culture, was filled with a loss of identity when he moved to America, heÃ¢â¬â¢s identity was of a guest whilst in Afghanistan he was a successful and influential figure. Amir, on the other hand, finds temporary relief from the guilt he left behind in Afghanistan. Similar to the forest of Arden that provides characters with an illusion of paradise in Ã¢â¬Å"As you like itÃ¢â¬ , America provides Amir with a vacation from the reality of his personal problems. For me, America was a place to bury my memoriesÃ¢â¬ ¦For Baba, a place to mourn his and thus demonstrating the importance of external factors such as place. To conclude, even though the texts are different they are dealing with universal themes of discrimination, familial connections and dislocation of place. And through these barriers that act to hold back an individuals ability to belong, it also acts as a catalyst for a deeper and more fulfilled state of belonging.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The Importance of Sleary's Circus People in Hard Times Ã Ã Ã Ã In Charles Dickens' novel "Hard Times", an alternative view of the Gradgrind-Bounderby way of life is presented by Sleary's circus people. Ã Sleary's people are shown by Dickens as leading lives which go against everything which Gradgrind represents and as such they are at first a kind of abomination to him. They are shown as people with a life of freedom, not constrained by the rigid set laws and hard facts which Gradgrind's philosophy is based upon. Not only just the physical freedom to roam the countryside almost at will, where Gradgrind is tied to Coketown. But also a mental freedom to enjoy life to the full with all it's spontaneity, unconditional emotions, imagination, failings, shortcomings and passions. Something which Gradgrind is shown not being able to comprehend until late on in the book. You get the feeling that their life on this world is to give pleasure to others at sometimes great risk to themselves "a pretty fair haired girl.......made a will at twelve" 1 , in a place where the "Hands" can e... The Importance of Sleary's Circus People in Hard Times Essay -- Dicken The Importance of Sleary's Circus People in Hard Times Ã Ã Ã Ã In Charles Dickens' novel "Hard Times", an alternative view of the Gradgrind-Bounderby way of life is presented by Sleary's circus people. Ã Sleary's people are shown by Dickens as leading lives which go against everything which Gradgrind represents and as such they are at first a kind of abomination to him. They are shown as people with a life of freedom, not constrained by the rigid set laws and hard facts which Gradgrind's philosophy is based upon. Not only just the physical freedom to roam the countryside almost at will, where Gradgrind is tied to Coketown. But also a mental freedom to enjoy life to the full with all it's spontaneity, unconditional emotions, imagination, failings, shortcomings and passions. Something which Gradgrind is shown not being able to comprehend until late on in the book. You get the feeling that their life on this world is to give pleasure to others at sometimes great risk to themselves "a pretty fair haired girl.......made a will at twelve" 1 , in a place where the "Hands" can e...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
In this essay I will compare the Theory of Creationism and the Theory of Evolution. While there are many that deeply believe in each of these theories, they present stark differences in thinking, and in individual beliefs. Let us begin by looking at Creationism. This particular theory has not a single shred of evidence to support it, yet vast populations are willing to die rather than denounce it. It has been referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"The TruthÃ¢â¬ . The basic belief of this theory is that Ã¢â¬Å"The Lord GodÃ¢â¬ , or a Ã¢â¬Å"Supreme BeingÃ¢â¬ created the universe and everything in it. It is believed that we as humans were made in the image of Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬ . God created man, and called him Ã¢â¬Å"AdamÃ¢â¬ . Adam was lonely and The Lord then took a rib from Adam while he slept, and with it he created woman. God called her Ã¢â¬Å"EveÃ¢â¬ . The creation of the universe and everything in it took six days. On the seventh day, God rested. In stark contrast to the Creationist Theory, we have what is called the Theory of Evolution. Charles Darwin is credited with first proposing this theory, which also includes something known as Ã¢â¬Ënatural selectionÃ¢â¬ . First things first, let us examine evolution. Darwin believed that we as humans, as wells animals and even plants are constantly changing. His belief and that of many others is that with every generation slight modifications are inherent, thus producing better and better offspring. By this this he means better adapted to survive and flourish. If it could ever be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down. Ã¢â¬ (Charles Darwin). To summarize, the basis of theory here is the guiding force or Ã¢â¬Å"natural selectionÃ¢â¬ preserves beneficial variations, therefore each generation exhibits new and more complex organisms. This applies to the tiniest bug or seedling, as well as all plants and animals including human beings. Scie nce however is yet to prove either theory. It must be said that the details of this process remain obscure and are not likely to be known in the near future. Ã¢â¬ (The RNA World, p72-73). It must be understood that science is based on two assumptions known as Ã¢â¬Å"axiomsÃ¢â¬ . Axioms represent self-evident assumptions. Scientists would not be able to continue the study of science without the observable axiom. If this were the case doubt would inevitably be cast on all scientific theories. Whereby if scientists were not able to observe reality, or if they were to observe it inaccurately, the basis of all scientific theories would be thrown out. It is most fortunate for mankind that the majority of people see this axiom clearly, without the need for instruction or clarity. While keeping in mind the observable axiom we must examine the naturalistic axiom. The naturalistic axiom differs from the observable axiom because unlike the observable axiom, the naturalistic axiom can be tested. This means science can function perfectly without it being easily observed by 90% of the population. Still, the means by which life originated is not currently understood. Because of the complicated problems that arise when studying lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s origin the more we begin to understand it, the more lost we become in respect to it. It seems to elude scientists more and more with each successive study revealing more mysterious problems then the last. In regard to the origin of life, the naturalistic axiom only permits science to investigate theories that exclude things that cannot be tested and proven. That means the study of theories without proof, such as supreme beings will not be considered. This places scientists in a rather precarious position. Not only is the opportunity to study God-related ideas not permitted, but evolutional ideas have not been proven either. Since evolutionists are not willing to abandon the naturalistic axiom they are forced to make one final observation. They must assume that science will inevitably discover the origin of life in the future. Therefore nothing has been proven-only assumptions have been made. Many scientists however have already accepted that evolution can be proved, yet I have not seen evidence of either theory. It is because of the lack of evidence that I make an observation myself. In other words, I presume to know one thing: Our beliefs are of a personal nature. They are not to be criticized or debated. Not an ounce of proof is necessary. Neither is the application of any type of axiom. No matter if an individual chooses either of the theories discussed in this paper, or proposes a theory of their own, or decides that no theory is even adequate-whatever one believes can never be wrong. While many would like to impose their beliefs on others, it is not an acceptable practice on any level. To attempt to do so has far reaching consequences and many times results in catastrophic illness, heartbreak and death. I find it unconscionable, yet it is occurring in many parts of the world even as this essay is written. Decisions can only be made for oneself. If only every person everywhere would stop to consider this, it is this authorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion that the world would be a much happier place.
Monday, January 6, 2020
When Charles Darwin formulated his Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, he had adopted some assumed premises. The most important of all these premises was that all biological organisms have an innate imperative for survival, if not solely for themselves as individuals, then for their offspring, and ultimately, their species. Regardless of whether or not these biological entities are even aware of this Ã¢â¬Å"will to live and proliferate,Ã¢â¬ it is assumed to not only exist in all living things, but also to be their ultimate goal. Man, Homo sapien, a biological organism, would be expected to have the very same primary goal towards survival, yet, often times it seems man has a more important agendaÃ¢â¬â towards personal gain. Most scientists willÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But much like the Greek fable, at the bottom of this box of maladies and nasties lies the true gift Ã¢â¬â hope Ã¢â¬â but it may be man s hubris and fear that, much like Pandora, slams the box shut before it can escape. This hope against sickness and disease is, of course, vaccination. Few scientific words spark as much heated debate between scientists and lay people alike as vaccination, but over the past few decades, the practice has become the source of great scrutiny. But vaccinations have been used in medicine since Edward Jenner discovered that inoculation with cowpox could provide immunity to small pox in 1796, and not only have they been used, but they have grown exponentially, with vaccines for life threatening and debilitating diseases such as rabies, tetanus, polio, and influenza becoming available for the masses, with new vaccines being developed all the time. But the past 15 years have seen many parents opt out of vaccination, deciding to expose their children to many of the dangers that medical science has pushed to the brink of extinction. Obviously, it can be assumed that it is not because these parents have some sort of desire to prevent the survival of their offspring. In fact, the reason is most likely grounded in some belief that vaccinations can harm their children. It has been known since vaccinations were first recommended and administered to children that there is a chance that they